Abstract

Testing has been performed with precision-geometric quartz (PGQ), engineered as geometrically identical regular tetrahedron-cut quartz, precisely oriented to the crystal axes. The PGQ crystals are exposed to modulated electromagnetic (EM) fields, after which they are referred to as PGQmem. The PGQ have truncated vertices and chamfered edges, designed to resonate when exposed to specific modulated EM fields. The PGQ are exposed to a multi-phasic modulated EM field generated by an EM-resonance-generator. To investigate the EM and electromechanical resonant properties (piezoelectric properties) of the treated PGQmem, measurements are performed to detect modulatory ordering effects on water when brought into proximity with the PGQMEM’s field of interaction. Results show that water samples exposed to the effective field of interaction of the PGQmem demonstrate significant differences in several physical properties as compared to controls (water that had no exposure to the crystals). Physical properties that were measured included pH, conductivity, surface tension, and electrochemical impedance. Here results are reported on the electrochemical measurements of conductivity and root-mean-square (RMS) impedance, including the frequency response phase angle. Water that had been exposed to the PGQmem for 24 hours showed significant differences in all the relevant physical parameters as compared to the un-exposed water control samples. 


1. Introduction

Data are presented for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)1 measurements of precision-geometric quartz (PGQ; Figure 1) that have been treated with a uniquely circularly modulated EM field (PGQmem). These data represent frequency response profiles of water samples that have been exposed to PGQMEM. In a previous study2, we reported results of differential plant growth-rates in test groups given PGQmem-treated water as compared to control test groups (with no PGQ exposure); indicating modulatory effects of PGQmem on water. To further test these results demonstrating modulatory effects of the PGQmem on water: RMS impedance measurements of ultrapure Type 1 water were taken of PGQMEM, PGQ (no modulated EM field treatment), and control groups (no PGQMEM or PGQ) to assess differences in electrochemical behavior of the treated and untreated water samples. 

Since the electrochemical profile of water can be affected by EM-field interaction, EIS measurements were taken to investigate if PGQMEM modulatory effects are correlated with changes in RMS impedance. 

The degree to which a water sample can conduct current—its conductivity, measured in Siemens per metre (S/m)—is dependent on the amount of charged ionic species in solution. Conductivity is inversely proportional to resistivity, measured in Ohm-metre (Ω·m). Resistivity is a measurement of a substance’s resistance to conducting current. Impedance is related to resistivity, but also includes measurement of electrical reactance, which is the AC or reactive component of impedance, arising from the effect of a combination of inductance and capacitance. It is a measure of the opposition to conductance within a material when an alternating current and voltage is applied across that material. Impedance, therefore, is dependent on resistivity as well as electrical reactance across a range of frequencies. The EIS unit uses the RMS value of the current to report impedance values. 

Conductivity changes in water are generally the result of ions dissolved in solution, however conductivity changes in pure water (water with minimal levels of dissolved ions) are the result of primarily electrochemical changes due to self-ionization and the absorption of atmospheric gases, particularly CO2. Self-ionization of water is the result of proton tunneling, in which the movement of protons in the matrix of H2O molecules results in either protonation or deprotonation, producing the hydronium H3O+ cation and the hydroxyl OH- anion, respectively. The equilibrium reaction is as follows: 

2H2O⇌H3O++OH- 

Atmospheric CO2 will dissolve into solution when pure water is exposed to ambient atmosphere. The absorbed CO2 forms carbonic acid H2CO3: 

CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3 

In aqueous solution carbonic acid rapidly dissociates: 

H2CO3⇌H++ HCO3- 

The H+ and HCO3- ions are the source of increasing conductivity of water when exposed to air. Here we test that electromagnetic and electromechanical interaction of the PGQmem with pure water samples will result in differences in self-ionization and CO2 absorption rates as compared to untreated water samples, and as such there will be differential electrochemical impedance frequency response profiles. 

Quartz is a trigonal crystal system comprised of a continuous matrix of SiO4 silicon-oxygen tetrahedra; each oxygen atom is shared between two tetrahedra, giving a final chemical formula of SiO2. Quartz crystals convert phononic modes and mechanical pressure into electricity through the piezoelectric effect3. Through this effect quartz crystals form the control element of oscillatory circuits in modern electronics devices that require high precision frequency sources, such as the central processing unit (CPU) of computers. After an initial stimulation of the piezoelectric axis of the PGQ by a modulated rotating EM field, we theorize that constitutive phononic oscillations(patent reference, time-crystal) driven from vacuum fluctuations will generate an electromotive force and excitation of the quantized EM field by the PGQmem. 


1.1 Materials & Methods 

1.1.1 Precision designed synthetic quartz crystals— 

The PGQ and PGQmem were provided by ARK Crystal LLC, and were utilized for testing and scientific characterization of their effects on water. 1.1.2 Electromagnetic-resonance generator— 

An electromagnetic-resonance generator designed by Torus Tech LLC—referred as the Harmonic Flux Resonator4 (HFR)—was utilized in treating the quartz crystals with a uniquely circularly modulated EM field, causing oscillation of the piezoelectric (electromechanical) axis of the PGQ crystals. The PGQ were exposed to the circularly modulated EM field of the HFR for a total of 2 hours, and then removed. After which, the crystals are ready for testing as PGQMEM. As part of the evaluation of this study, quartz crystals exposed to this uniquely patterned EM field are considered to have increased consitutitve EM field interaction after treatment. 

1.1.3 Ultrapure Type 1 water— Ultrapure Type 1 (molecular grade) water was produced using the Milli-Q Integral water purification system. All tests were performed with Milli-Q Type 1 ultrapure water. The ultrapure water was placed in uncontaminated air-tight 500 mL pyrex glass containers. Conductivity measurements of 100 ml aliquots of the test water (experimental groups and controls) were taken to ensure purity of water samples during testing. 

1.1.4 EM-control water-treatment containers— An EM-shielded container was constructed from solid copper tubing with an outer-diameter (OD) of 10.5 cm, an inner-diameter (ID) of 10.3 cm, and a height of 13 cm; was welded to a solid copper base 15 cm X 15cm with a copper ring of 16 mm in height and 20 mm in diameter welded to the center. The copper ring allows for the PGQmem and PGQ to be placed under the 500 mL pyrex glass containers with the ultrapure water; the glass containers sit on top of the copper ring over the crystals in the experimental groups, while in control groups there are no PGQmem or PGQ. The base is electrically grounded. The EM-control water-treatment containers have a lid that completes EM shielding; the lid is a copper plate of similar dimensions as the base, but with an inset that slides the cap over the OD of the copper tubing exactly to effectively seal the inside from ambient EM radiation. 

1.1.5 CYBRES electrochemical impedance spectrometer— 

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a methodology utilized to measure ionic properties of water and aqueous solutions. An electrochemical impedance spectrometer was obtained from CYBRES and used to collect EIS data of test samples and characterize parameters of their ionic properties—particularly comparing water treated with PGQMEM, PGQ, and to untreated samples. 

Aliquots of each test group were transferred to two separate 20 mL cuvettes that are attached to electrode sensors of the EIS unit. Measurements were taken across a frequency of 400 hz to 200 khz for each sample: (1) water treated with PGQmem; (2) water treated with PGQ; and (3) water with no PGQmem or PGQ treatment (controls). Average impedance frequency response values were calculated for each test group. 


2. Results 

Statistical analysis for each test group was performed to calculate the average impedance across the spectrum of oscillating AC frequency from 400 Hz to 10 kHz in PGQmem vs. control (Figure 2); PGQ vs. control (Figure 3); and all 3 test groups Comparative analysis was performed between each test group: (1) PGQmem, (2) PGQ experimental samples and (3) ultra-pure Type I untreated-water control samples (Figure 4). 

Water samples from the EM-treated PGQmem test group had a lower average impedance value as compared to untreated water control samples. The PGQ test group unexposed to the EM modulation have a lower average impedance value across measurements as compared to control samples, however Figure 4 shows that the PGQ-treated water sample groups have an intermediate impedance value that is higher than the PGQmem, but lower than the control. 


3. Discussion 

Statistical analysis shows that water samples treated with PGQmem have a lower average impedance value across the frequency spectrum as compared to untreated water control samples. The intermediate impedance value of PGQ that have not been treated with the circularly polarized EM field—showing an impedance value that is higher than the PGQmem but still lower than the control—indicates that the EM excitation of the PGQ has a significant modulation of the PGQmem on the its interactivity with water, as observed through the changes in impedance values across the 3 test groups. 

Since the water samples are ultrapure Type 1 molecular grade water, changes in electrochemical activity resulting in ionization are due to only two sources: (1) absorption of atmospheric gases; and (2) self-ionization. Since the experimental and control groups have the same degree of absorption of atmospheric gases, the difference in impedance is the result of an increased self-ionization rate in the experimental group. Such an effect can be explained by increased proton mobility in the PGQmem-treated water samples. Increased proton mobility, which includes proton tunneling, requires greater geometric coordination among the matrix of water molecules comprising the bulk liquid5,6 —suggesting that there is increased geometric coordination and ordering in the PGQmem treated experimental group as compared to the control. 

4. References 

[1] Kernbach S. (2018). Application Note 24. Analysis of electrochemical noise for detection of non-chemical treatment of fluids. CYBRES MU EIS. 

[2] Haramein N., Brown S., Brown W. (2018). Advanced Resonance Kinetics Crystal Technology. ARK LLC Publishing. 

[3] Suter J.J., Norton J.R., Besson R. (1994). Electrical Characterization of Precision Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Resonators. In: Green R.E., Kozaczek K.J., Ruud C.O. (eds) Nondestructive Characterization of Materials VI. Springer, Boston, MA. 

[4] Haramein N. (2011). Patent No.: US 8,073,094 B2. United States Patent. Device and Method for Simulation of Magnetohedrodynamics. 

[5] Lapid H., Agmon N., Matt K., Voth P. Voth P., Voth G.A. (2005). A bond-order analysis of the mechanism for hydrated proton mobility in liquid water. The Journal of chemical physics. 122. 14506. 10.1063/1.1814973. 

[6] Ryding M.J., Andersson P.U., Zatula A.S. (2012). Proton Mobility in Water Clusters. European Journal of Mass Spectrometry. Vol 18, Issue 2.